Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
- CANADA PR
- AUSTRALIA PR
CANADA PR –
A permanent resident is someone who has been given permanent resident status by immigrating to Canada, but is not a Canadian citizen. Permanent residents are citizens of other countries. A person in Canada temporarily, like a student or foreign worker, is not a permanent resident.
The permanent resident (PR) card
Your PR card can be used to show that you have permanent resident status in Canada. If you travel outside Canada, you will need to show your card and your passport when you come back on a commercial vehicle, like an airplane, boat, train or bus.
PRs travelling outside Canada who do not have a valid PR card, or who are not carrying it, need to apply for a permanent resident travel document before returning to Canada by commercial vehicle.
What permanent residents can do
As a permanent resident, you have the right to:
- get most social benefits that Canadian citizens receive, including health care coverage,
- live, work or study anywhere in Canada
- apply for Canadian citizenship,
- protection under Canadian law and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
You must pay taxes and respect all Canadian laws at the federal, provincial and municipal levels.
What permanent residents cannot do
You are not allowed to:
- vote or run for political office,
- hold some jobs that need a high-level security clearance.
Time spent living in Canada
When you are a permanent resident, you can live outside of Canada, but must live in Canada for at least two years in a five-year period. If you live outside of Canada for longer, you may lose your permanent resident status.
Losing your permanent resident status
You don’t lose your permanent resident status when your PR card expires. You can only lose your status if you go through an official process.
You can lose your permanent resident status if:
- an adjudicator determines you are no longer a permanent resident after an inquiry or PRTD appeal;
- you voluntarily renounce your permanent resident status;
- a removal order is made against you and comes into force; or
- you become a Canadian citizen.
Even if you don’t meet the residency obligation, you are still a PR until an official decision is made on your status.
Individuals and families around the world can immigrate to Canada within just a few months through the Express Entry immigration selection system. Express Entry, first introduced in 2015, has become the main driver of economic immigration to Canada and one of the most popular immigration systems globally.
What is Express Entry Canada?
Express Entry is system used by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC), which manages and processes applications, received through Canada’s federal economic immigration programs. Applications are received from eligible candidates who have been invited to apply to immigrate to Canada based on their human capital factors, skills, experience, and other factors. Under Express Entry, individuals and families wishing to settle in Canada can become new permanent residents within just a few months.
How Express Entry works:
Potential applicants will need to be eligible under one of the following federal economic immigration programs.
- The Federal Skilled Worker Class (FSWC)
- The Canadian Experience Class (CEC)
- The Federal Skilled Trades Class (FSTC)
A portion of the Provincial Nominee Programs (PNPs) are streamlined through Express Entry, but candidates must be eligible under one of the three federal programs in order to enter the Express Entry pool.
Eligible individuals may submit an Expression of Interest (EOI). This EOI will be assessed and issued a ranking score.
The ranking score for Express Entry is based on the Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS). Under the CRS, candidates are assigned a score out of 1,200 used to rank federal economic candidates for immigration to Canada. Candidates can improve their rank, and thereby increase their chances of receiving an Invitation to Apply (ITA), by taking steps to improve their CRS score.
The CRS is not a selection criteria (like that of the one used for the Federal Skilled Worker Class). It is a ranking system for candidates who are eligible under the FSWC, CEC, or FSTC. The SCRS score is used as a cut-off point in Express Entry draws. It is designed to project a candidate’s likelihood of being economically successful in Canada. It ranks different candidates based on their career and educational history, language skills, and whether they have already received a qualifying job offer or provincial nomination in Canada, among other factors. Those candidates with a Labor Market Impact Assessment (LMIA), or another qualifying job offer, are eligible for either 50 or 200 bonus points in the CRS. Provincial nominees can receive 6oo bonus points.
Qualifying job offers used to receive 600 points also, but this was amended in the Express Entry changes of November 2016.Express Entry draw figures for July 11, 2018 are below.
The 14th Express Entry draw for permanent residency candidates in 2018 has taken place, with 3,750 candidates set to receive an invitation to apply (ITA). The Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) cut-off threshold for this draw stood at 442 points, the same as for the previous draw, which took place on June 25.
Australian permanent residents are residents of Australia who hold a permanent residency visa but are not citizens of Australia. A holder of a permanent residency visa may remain in Australia indefinitely. A 5-year initial travel facility, which corresponds to the underlying migration program, is granted alongside the permanent residency. Until the travel facility expires, the visa holder may leave and re-enter Australia freely. After that period the visa holder needs to re-apply for the travel facility.
Permanent residency may be revoked at the discretion of the responsible Minister, for example in cases of criminal misconduct.
Permanent residents enjoy many of the rights and privileges of citizens, including access to free or subsidized legal and health services. They do not have the right to vote in federal or state/territory elections, unless they were registered to vote prior to 1984, but may vote in some local government elections. Permanent residents are not entitled to an Australian passport.
Most permanent residents are eligible to become citizens after a waiting period. When the waiting period is complete, the process of sitting for the citizenship test and attending the ceremony will add three to twelve months to gaining citizenship.
There are a number of programs under which a person may enter and obtain permanent residency in Australia, including:
- General Skilled Migration Program – mainly for skilled migrants, and has made available 129,250 visas for year 2012-2013.
- Humanitarian Program – mainly for refugees seeking permanent residency, and has made available 13,750 visas for year 2012-2013. Family members can also be sponsored. An unlimited number of visas can be issued for partners (either married or de facto) and dependent children. Visas for other family member types are subject to limited (known as “capping”); for example there are only 1000 visas available under the ‘Parent’ category, and as a consequence there is currently up to a twenty-year waiting period before undergoing consideration for these visas.
- Few limitations on employment in Australia. Some job opportunities, largely federal governmental work, require citizenship as opposed to permanent residence.
- The right to apply for Australian citizenship after fulfilling some criteria.
- For permanent residents accepted under the humanitarian program and enrolled in a Commonwealth supported place, the right to defer payment of their student contribution under the HECS-HELP scheme.
- The right to sponsor relatives for permanent residence, subject to fulfilling residence criteria and assurance of support requirements.
- Children born inside Australia will be Australian citizens by birth.
- The right to access medical and social security benefits, though there is a 2-year waiting period for some benefits.
- The right to travel to New Zealand without applying for a New Zealand visa. (This right is granted by the New Zealand government.)
- Unrestricted rights to live, work and study in New Zealand. (This right is granted by the New Zealand government.)
Australian Skilled Immigration Points Requirements
The Skillselect system is points based, with applicants receiving points for criteria ranging from Age to work experience. Applicants must score a minimum of 60 points for their visa to be granted. The following tables give a detailed breakdown of how points are awarded for Skillselect visas.
Try our free online Australian General Skilled Migration points test to see if you score enough points for your visa.
- Nominated occupation
- English language proficiency
- Skilled employment
- Educational qualifications
- Australian qualifications
- Regional study
- Community language skills
- Spouse/partner skills and qualifications
- Professional year
- Nominations and sponsorship (Subclasses 190 and 489 only)
Australian Visa Subclasses and Points Pass Marks
|Visa Subclasses and Pass marks|
|Skilled – Independent (subclass 189)||60|
|Skilled – Sponsored (subclass 190)||60|
|Skilled – Regional Sponsored (subclass 489)||60|
Points for Age
|Age at time of application||Points|
Points for English Language Ability
|English Language Ability||Points|
|Superior English – person has a score of 8 or more in the English Language Testing System (IELTS) in each of the four test components.||20|
|Proficient English – person has a score of 7 or more in the English Language Testing System (IELTS) in each of the four test components.||10|
|Competent English – person has a score of 6 or more in the English Language Testing System (IELTS) in each of the four test components.||0|
Points for Skilled Employment
Only 20 points can be awarded for any combination of overseas and Australian skilled employment.Points for Australian Employment in nominated skilled occupation or a closely related occupation
|At least eight and up to 10 years (of past 10 years).||20|
|At least five but less than eight years (of past 10 years).||15|
|At least three but less than five years (of past 10 years).||10|
|At least one but less than three years (of past 10 years).||5|
|At least eight and up to 10 years (of past 10 years).||15|
|At least five but less than eight years (of past 10 years).||10|
|At least three but less than five years (of past 10 years).||5|
Points for Educational Qualifications
|Doctorate from an Australian educational institution or other Doctorate of a recognised standard.||20|
|At least a Bachelor degree, including a Bachelor degree with Honours or Masters, from an Australian educational institution or other degree of a recognised standard.||15|
|Diploma or trade qualification or other qualification completed in Australia, or qualification or award of recognised standard.||10|
Australian Study Requirements
|One or more degrees, diplomas or trade qualifications awarded by an Australian educational institution and meet the Australian Study Requirement.||5|
Points for Credentialled Community Language Qualifications
|You can receive five points for credentialled community language at the time you are invited to apply. Credentialled community language is accredited by the National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters (NAATI).||5|
Points for Study in Regional Australia or a low population growth metropolitan area (excluding distance education)
|You can receive five points if you meet the Australian Study Requirement to have lived and studied in regional Australia or a low population growth metropolitan area at the time you are invited to apply.||5|
Points for Partner Skill Qualifications
|You can receive five points if your partner meets requirements at the time you are invited to apply relating to:||5|
|English Language Ability;|
|A suitable skills assessment in a nominated occupation on the same Skilled Occupation List used for your application.|
|You cannot receive these points if your partner is not included on your visa application, or if they are an Australian citizen or an Australian permanent resident.|
Points for Professional Year in Australia for at least 12 months in the four years before the day you were invited
|You can receive five points for having completed a Professional Year in Australia in the four years before you are invited to apply.||5|
|Your Professional Year course must have been in your nominated skilled occupation or a closely related skilled occupation. The course must have lasted for a period totalling at least 12 months.|
Points for Nomination by State or Territory Government (visa subclass 190 only)
|Nomination by a state or territory government under a State Migration Plan, for the purposes of a subclass 190 application.||5|
Points for Nomination by State or Territory Government or Sponsorship by an Eligible Family Member, to reside and work in a specified/designated area (visa subclass 489 only)
Points for Nomination by State or Territory Government or Sponsorship by an Eligible Family Member
|Nomination by a state or territory government under a State Migration Plan, or sponsorship by an eligible relative,to a regional area for the purposes of a subclass 489 application.||10|